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1988 Tour de France

July 4 - July 24

Results, stages with running GC, map, photos, video and history

1987 Tour | 1989 Tour |Tour de France database | 1988 Tour Quick Facts | 1988 Tour Final GC | Stage results with running GC | The Story of the 1988 Tour de France | Video |

1988 Tour de France map

Map of the 1988 Tour de France route


1988 Tour de France quick facts

The 1988 Tour had 22 stages plus a prologue that totaled 3281.5 kilometers.

It was ridden at an average speed of 38.909 km/hr.

198 riders started and there were 151 classified finishers.

Stephen Roche was unable to defend his 1987 Tour championship, having to undergo two knee operations in the off-season. Giro winner Andy Hampsten was exhausted after riding the Giro. That made Pedro Delgado who was never really outclassed by Roche in the 1987 edition, the favorite. Delgado easily won. But not without scandal.

Late in the race Delgado was found positive for Probenicid, a steroid masking agent. The drug was banned by the Olympic committee, but the UCI wasn't going to add it to the list of banned drugs for professional racers until after the Tour. At the time Delgado was found to have the drug in his system, it wasn't against the rule. So, Delgado gets his Tour victory while the rest of the world holds its nose.


1988 Tour de France complete final General Classification:

  1. Pedro Delgado (Reynolds) 84hr 27min 53sec
  2. Steven Rooks (PDM) @ 7min 13sec
  3. Fabio Parra (Kelme) @ 9min 58sec
  4. Steve Bauer (Weinmann) @ 12min 15sec
  5. Eric Boyer (Système U) @ 14min 4sec
  6. Luis Herrera (Cafe de Colombia) @ 14min 36sec
  7. Ronan Pensec (Z) @ 16min 52sec
  8. Alvaro Pino (BH) @ 18min 36sec
  9. Peter Winnen (Panasonic) @ 19min 12sec
  10. Denis Roux (Z) @ 20min 8sec
  11. Gert-Jan Theunisse (PDM) @ 22min 46sec
  12. Erik Breukink (Panasonic) @ 23min 6sec
  13. Laudelino Cubino (BH) @ 23min 46sec
  14. Claude Criquielion (Hitachi) @ 24min 32sec
  15. Andrew Hampsten (7-Eleven) @ 26min 0sec
  16. Marino Lejaretta (Caja Rural) @ 26min 36sec
  17. Pascal Simon (Système U) @ 28min 39sec
  18. Eric Caritoux (KAS) @ 29min 4sec
  19. Jérôme Simon (Z) @ 30min 55sec
  20. Raúl Alcalá (7-Eleven) @ 31min 14sec
  21. Gerhard Zadrobilek (Weinmann) @ 32min 9sec
  22. Roberto Visentini (Carrera) @ 33min 23sec
  23. Thierry Claveyrolat (RMO) @ 37min 49sec
  24. Jaanus Kuum (ADR) @ 38min 53sec
  25. Federico Echave (BH) @ 29min 17sec
  26. Jørgen Pedersen (BH) @ 29min 24sec
  27. Jörg Müller (PDM) @ 40min 53sec
  28. Frédéric Vichot (Weinmann) @ 42min 0sec
  29. Peter Stevenhaagen (PDM) @ 45min 27sec
  30. Eduardo Chozas (Kelme) @ 45min 45sec
  31. Samuel Cabrera (Cafe de Colombia) @ 46min 6sec
  32. Philippe Bouvatier (BH) @ 48min 14sec
  33. Marc Sergeant (Hitachi) @ 49min 24sec
  34. Dag-Otto Lauritzen (7-Eleven) @ 50mn 8sec
  35. Jesus Blanco (Teka) @ 55min 28sec
  36. Gilbert Duclos-Lassalle (Z) @ 57min 21sec
  37. Jean-Philippe Vandenbrande (Hitachi) @ 57min 57sec
  38. Guy Nulens (Panasonic) @ 59min 13sec
  39. Jean-Claude Bagot (Fagor) @ 59min 47sec
  40. Charly Berard (Fagor) @ 1min 0min 8sec
  41. Edgar Corredor (Cafe de Colombia) @ 1hr 1min 20sec
  42. Julio César Cadena (Cafe de Colombia) @ 1hr 1min 28sec
  43. Niki Rüttimann (Weinmann) @ 1hr 1min 43sec
  44. Henrie Abadie (Z) @ 1hr 1min 59sec
  45. Gerard Veldscholten (Weinmann) @ 1hr 2min 32sec
  46. Sean Kelly (KAS) @ 1hr 2min 32sec
  47. Miguel Indurain (Reynolds) @ 1hr 3min 15sec
  48. Dominique Arnaud (Reynolds) @ 1hr 7min 31sec
  49. Isreal Corredor (Cafe de Colombia) @ 1hr 7min 50sec
  50. Michael Wilson (Weinmann) @ 1hr 9min 31sec
  51. José Patrocinio Jiménez (Cafe de Colombia) @ 1hr 9min 55sec
  52. Jesús Rodriguez (Reynolds) @ 1hr 11min 17sec
  53. Jon Unzaga (KAS) @ 1hr 12min 17sec
  54. Johnny Weltz (Fagor) @ 1hr 12min 49sec
  55. Jean-Claude Colotti (RMO) @ 1hr 15min 0sec
  56. Jos Haex (Hitachi) @ 1hr 15min 16sec
  57. Mariano Sánchez (Teka) @ 1hr 16min 6sec
  58. Jean-Claude Leclercq (Weinmann) @ 1hr 17min 21sec
  59. Sean Yates (Fagor) @ 1hr 17min 25sec
  60. Julián Gorospe (Reynolds) @ 1hr 17min 33sec
  61. Jan Nevens (Sigma) @ 1hr 18min 11sec
  62. Gianni Bugno (Chateau d'Ax) @ 1hr 19min 9sec
  63. Jokin Mujika (Caja Rural) @ 1hr 19min 15sec
  64. Enrique Aja (Teka) @ 1hr 19min 52sec
  65. Philippe Leleu (Toshiba) @ 1hr 21min 51sec
  66. Marc Madiot (Toshiba) @ 1hr 22min 34sec
  67. Christophe Lavainne (Système U) @ 1hr 22min 34sec
  68. Tony Rominger (Chateau d'Ax) @ 1hr 23min 41sec
  69. Ron Kiefel (7-Eleven) @ 1hr 23min 58sec
  70. Roland Le Clerc (Caja Rural) @ 1hr 25min 17sec
  71. Martial Gayant (Toshiba) @ 1hr 25min 30sec
  72. Jacques Decrion (Système U) @ 1hr 26min 44sec
  73. Marco Antonio Leon (Cafe de Colombia) @ 1hr 26min 58sec
  74. Eric Van Lancker (Panasonic) @ 1hr 28min 37sec
  75. Vicente Belda (Kelme) @ 1hr 29min 29sec
  76. Marc can Orsouw (PDM) @ 1hr 30min 36sec
  77. Bruno Leali (Carrera) @ 1hr 30min 50sec
  78. Patrice Esnault (RMO) @ 1hr 30min 59sec
  79. Alessandro Pozzi (Chateau d'Ax) @ 1hr 32min 19sec
  80. Dirk de Wolf (Hitachi) @ 1hr 33min 25sec
  81. Frédéric Brun (Z) @ 1hr 33min 32sec
  82. Luis Javier Lukin (Reynolds) @ 1hr 34min 0sec
  83. Raimund Dietzen (Teka) @ 1hr 34min 25sec
  84. Adrie van der Poel (PDM) @ 1hr 34min 43sec
  85. Massimo Ghirotto (Carrera) @ 1hr 35min 2sec
  86. Enio Vanotti (Chateau d'Ax) @ 1hr 36min 3sec
  87. Rudy Dhaenens (PDM) @ 1hr 36min 16sec
  88. Michel Bibollet (RMO) @ 1hr 38min 14sec
  89. Ludo Peeters (Cuperconfex) @ 1hr 42min 47sec
  90. Malcom Elliott (Fagor) @ 1hr 44min 27sec
  91. Rolf Gölz (Superconfex) @ 1hr 44min 47sec
  92. Acácio da Silva (KAS) @ 1hr 45min 26sec
  93. Dominique Garde (Système U) @ 1hr 46min 44sec
  94. Régis Clère (Teka) @ 1hr 47min 13sec
  95. Hennie Kuiper (Sigma) @ 1hr 49min 37sec
  96. Jan Wynants (Hitachi) @ 1hr 49min 56sec
  97. Arsenio Gonzalez (Teka) @ 1hr 50min 13sec
  98. Thierry Marie (Système U) @ 1hr 51min 11sec
  99. Søren Lilholt (Sigma) @ 1hr 51min 58sec
  100. Dante Rezze (RMO) @ 1hr 53min 3sec
  101. Stefan Morjean (Hitachi) @ 1hr 54min 56sec
  102. Alfons de Wolf (ADR) @ 1hr 55min 56sec
  103. Etienne de Wilde (Sigma) @ 1hr 57min 17sec
  104. Roque de la Cruz (Caja Rural) @ 1hr 57min 52sec
  105. Davis Phinney (7-Eleven) @ 1hr 58min 8sec
  106. Guido Bontempi (Carrera) @ 1hr 59min 7sec
  107. Vicente-Juan Ridaura (Caja Rural) @ 2hr 1min 31sec
  108. Frédéric Garnier (Toshiba) @ 2hr 2min 52sec
  109. Marco Bergamo (Carrera) @ 2hr 5min 53sec
  110. Andreas Kappes (Toshiba) @ 2hr 6min 2sec
  111. José Salvador Sanchis (Caja Rural) @ 2hr 7min 0sec
  112. Iñaki Gaston (Kelme) @ 2hr 7min 49sec
  113. Jens Veggerby (7-Eleven) @ 2hr 9min 27sec
  114. Javier Murguialday (BH) @ 2hr 9min 32sec
  115. Eddy Planckaert (ADR) @ 2hr 9min 34sec
  116. Angel Camarillo (Teka) @ 2hr 10min 29sec
  117. Celestino Prieto (KAS) @ 2hr 11min 16sec
  118. Heminio Diaz (Reynolds) @ 2hr 11min 42sec
  119. Jacques Hanegraaf (Toshiba) @ 2hr 12min 11sec
  120. Joël Pelier (Système U) @ 2hr 13min 28sec
  121. Francisco-José Antequera (BH) @ 2hr 13min 55sec
  122. Jelle Nijdam (Superconfex) @ 2hr 15min 59sec
  123. Régis Simon (RMO) @ 2hrb18min 18sec
  124. Frank Hoste (ADR) @ 2hr 18min 50sec
  125. Alfred Achermann (KAS) @ 2hr 19min 26sec
  126. Frans Maassen (Superconfex) @ 2hr 19min 43sec
  127. Twan Poels (Superconfex) @ 2hr 20min 43sec
  128. Manuel Jorge Domínguez (BH) @ 2hr 20min 59sec
  129. Philippe Casado (Z) @ 2hr 21min 31sec
  130. Johan Lammerts (Toshiba) @ 2hr 23min 17sec
  131. René Martens (ADR) @ 2hr 24min 52sec
  132. Gerrit Solleveld (Superconfex) @ 2hr 26min 56sec
  133. Michel Vermote (RMO) @ 2hr 27min 0sec
  134. Juan Martinéz (Kelme) @ 2hr 27min 44sec
  135. Andy Bishop (PDM) @ 2hr 29min 0sec
  136. Erich Mächler (Carrera) @ 2hr 29min 37sec
  137. Rik van Slycke (Sigma) @ 2hr 33min 3sec
  138. Jean-Paul van Poppel (Superconfex) @ 2hr 35min 9sec
  139. Milan Jurco (Chateau d'Ax) @ 2hr 35min 45sec
  140. Hartmut Bölts (RMO) @ 2hr 36min 26sec
  141. Walter Magnago (Carrera) @ 2hr 37min 52sec
  142. Stefano Zanatta (Chateau d'Ax) @ 2hr 38min 23sec
  143. Nico Verhoeven (Superconfex) @ 2hr 42min 20sec
  144. Nathan Dahlberg (7-Eleven) @ 2hr 42min 46sec
  145. Gert Jakobs (Superconfex) @ 2hr 45min 28sec
  146. Marco Tabai (Carrera) @ 2hr 46min 16sec
  147. Mathieu Hermans (Caja Rural) @ 2hr 48min 53sec
  148. Jean-Pierre Heynderickx (Sigma) @ 2hr 54min 7sec
  149. Dirk Demol (ADR) @ 2hr 55min 18sec
  150. John Talen (Panasonic) @ 3hr 5min 2sec
  151. Dirk Wayenberg (ADR) @ 3hr 28min 41sec

Climbers Competition:

  1. Steven Rooks (PDM): 326 points
  2. Gert-Jan Theunisse (PDM): 248
  3. Pedro Delgado (Reynolds): 223
  4. Ronan Pensec (Z): 130
  5. Jérôme Simon (Z): 127
  6. Fabio Parra (Kelme): 123
  7. Laudelino Cubino (BH): 101
  8. Alvaro Pino (BH): 98
  9. Samuel Cabrera (Cafe de Colombia): 82
  10. Luis Herrera (Cafe de Colombia): 80
 

Points Competition:

  1. Eddy Planckaert: 278 points
  2. Davis Phinney (7-Eleven): 193
  3. Sean Kelly (KAS): 183
  4. Steven Rooks (PDM): 154
  5. Mathieu Hermans (Caja Rural): 153
  6. Jean-Paul van Poppel (Superconfex): 141
  7. Etienne de Wilde (Sigma): 133
  8. Adrie van der Poel (PDM): 132
  9. Manuel Jorge Domínguez (BH): 114
  10. Steve Bauer (Weinmann): 108

Team GC:

  1. PDM: 253hr 57min 58sec
  2. BH @ 12min 32sec
  3. Z @ 14min 43sec
  4. Weinmann @ 31min 23sec
  5. Système U @ 32min 43sec

Team Points:

  1. PDM: 1,028 points
  2. 7-Eleven: 1,713
  3. Weinmann: 1,737
  4. Système U: 1,787
  5. Z: 1,789

Best Young Rider:

  1. Erik Breukink (Panasonic) 84hr 50min 59sec
  2. Raúl Alcalá (7-Eleven) @ 8min 8sec
  3. Jaanus Kuum (ADR) @ 15min 47sec
  4. Peter Stevenhaagen (PDM) @ 22min 21sec
  5. Philippe Bouvatier (BH) @ 25min 8sec

1988 Tour de France stages and results

Prologue: Sunday, July 3, Pornichet - La Baule 1-km Team/Individual Time Trial (Rider was launched with a flying start by his team). Stage and GC places and times are the same.

1. Guido Bontempi: 1min 14.11sec
2. Stevenhagen @ 1.89sec
3. Jelle Nijdam @ 2.81sec
4. Etienne De Wilde @ 2.26sec
5. Gilbert Duclos-Lassalle @ 3.58sec
6. Sean Yates @ 4.65sec
7. Sean Kelly @ 5.35sec
8. Gianni Bugno @ 5.55sec
9. Thierry Marie @ 6.39sec
10. Jaime Vilamajo @ 6.42sec

Stage 1: Monday, July 4, Pontchateau - Machecoul, 91.5 km

1. Steve Bauer: 2hr 16min 34sec
2. Eric Vanderaerden @ 8sec
3. Eddy Planckaert s.t.
4. Davis Phinney s.t.
5. Wiebren Veenstra s.t.
6. Sean Kelly s.t.
7. Etienne De Wilde s.t.
8. Manuel-Jorge Dominguez s.t.
9. Stefano Zanatta s.t.
10. Adri Van Der Poel s.t.

GC after Stage 1:

1. Steve Bauer: 2hr 16min 28sec
2. Soren Lilholt s.t.
3. Teun Van Vliet s.t.
4. Nico Verhoeven @ 6sec
5. Jean-Pierre Heynderickx @ 8sec
6. Steven Rooks @ 10sec
7. Jelle Nijdam s.t.
8. Guido Bontempi @ 12sec
9. Pedro Delgado s.t.
10. Eric Vanderaerden @ 14sec

Stage 2: Monday, July 4, La Haye Fouaddiere - Ancenis 48 km Team Time Trial

1. Panasonic: 55min 31sec
2. Weinmann @ 24sec
3. Hitachi @ 36sec
4. Z @ s.t.
5. BH @ 55sec
6. Superconfex @ 1min 1sec
7. Reynolds @ 1min 2sec
8. Kas @ 1min 14sec
9. Toshiba s.t.
10. Carrera Jeans @ 1min 15sec

GC after Stage 2:

1. Teun Van Vliet: 3hr 11min 59sec
2. Eric Vanderaerden @ 14sec
3. Henk Lubberding s.t.
4. Erik Breukink s.t.
5. Guy Nulens s.t.
6. Peter Winnen s.t.
7. Eric Van Lancker s.t.
8. Theo De Rooy s.t.
9. Steve Bauer @ 24sec
10. Frederic Vichot @ 38sec

Stage 3: Tuesday, July 5, Nantes - Le Mans, 213.5 km

1. Jean-Paul Van Poppel: 4hr 52min 8sec
2. Mathieu Hermans s.t.
3. Eric Vanderaerden s.t.
4. Eddy Planckaert s.t.
5. Sean Kelly s.t.
6. Adri Van Der Poel s.t.
7. Etienne De Wilde s.t.
8. Malcom Elliott s.t.
9. Frederic Vichot s.t.
10. Jean-Philippe Vandenbrande s.t.

GC after Stage 3:

1. Teun Van Vliet: 8hr 2min 59sec
2. Eric Vanderaerden @ 18sec
3. Henk Lubberding @ 22sec
4. Guy Nulens s.t.
5. Erik Breukink s.t.
6. Theo De Rooy s.t.
7. Peter Winnen s.t.
8. Eric Van Lancker s.t.
9. Steve Bauer @ 32sec
10. Frederic Vichot @ 46sec

Stage 4: Wednesday, July 6, Le Mans - Evreux, 158 km

1. Acacio Da Silva: 3hr 25min 14sec
2. Steven Rooks s.t.
3. Sean Kelly s.t.
4. Etienne De Wilde s.t.
5. Eddy Planckaert s.t.
6. Mathieu Hermans s.t.
7. Jean-Philippe Vandenbrande s.t.
8. Henri Abadie s.t.
9. Inaki Gaston s.t.
10. Eric Vanderaerden s.t.

GC after Stage 4:

1. Teun Van Vliet: 11hr 29min 13sec
2. Eric Vanderaerden @ 18sec
3. Henk Lubberding @ 22sec
4. Erik Breukink s.t.
5. Theo De Rooy s.t.
6. Peter Winnen s.t.
7. Guy Nulens s.t.
8. Eric Van Lancker s.t.
9. Steve Bauer @ 32sec
10. Frederic Vichot @ 46sec

Stage 5: Thursday, July 7, Neufchatel en Bray - Liévin, 147.5 km

1. Jelle Nijdam: 3hr 14min 14sec
2. Massimo Ghirotto @ 8sec
3. Sean Kelly @ 13sec
4. Nico Verhoeven s.t.
5. Henk Lubberding s.t.
6. Steve Bauer s.t.
7. Jean-Pierre Heynderickx s.t.
8. Steven Rooks s.t.
9. Ron Kiefel s.t.
10. Erik Breukink s.t.

GC after stage 5:

1. Henk Lubberding: 14hr 44min 2sec
2. Erik Breukink s.t.
3. Peter Winnen s.t.
4. Steve Bauer @ 10sec
5. Eric Vanderaerden @ 31sec
6. Teun Van Vliet @ 38sec
7. Eric Van Lancker @ 41sec
8. Guy Nulens @ 43sec
9. Theo De Rooy s.t.
10. Jelle Nijdam @ 44sec

Stage 6: Friday, July 8, Liévin - Wasquehal 52 km Individual Time Trial

1. Sean Yates: 1hr 3min 22sec
2. Roberto Visentini @ 14sec
3. Tony Rominger @ 23sec
4. Jelle Nijdam @ 41sec
5. Gerrit Solleveld @ 49sec
6. Gianni Bugno @ 1min 4sec
7. Milan Jurco @ 1min 6sec
8. Charly Mottet @ 1min 8sec
9. Jean-François Bernard @ 1min 14sec
10. Thierry Marie @ 1min 16sec

GC after stage 6:

1. Jelle Nijdam: 15hr 48min 49sec
2. Steve Bauer @ 1sec
3. Erik Breukink @ 21sec
4. Eric Vanderaerden @ 45sec
5. Jean-François Bernard @ 1min 3sec
6. Roberto Visentini @ 1min 4sec
7. Charly Mottet s.t.
8. Gilbert Duclos-Lassalle @ 1min 27sec
9. Frederic Brun @ 1min 30sec
10. Rolf Golz @ 1min 30sec

Stage 7: Saturday, July 9, Wasquehal - Reims, 225.5 km

1. Valerio Tebaldi: 5hr 27min 10sec
2. Philippe Casado @ 6sec
3. Jean-Paul Van Poppel @ 1min 47sec
4. Eddy Planckaert s.t.
5. Sean Kelly s.t.
6. Adri Van Der Poel s.t.
7. Davis Phinney s.t.
8. Jean-Philippe Vandenbrande s.t.
9. Marc Sergeant s.t.
10. Michel Vermote s.t.

GC after Stage 7:

1. Jelle Nijdam: 21hr 17min 38sec
2. Steve Bauer @ 9sec
3. Erik Breukink @ 29sec
4. Eric Vanderaerden @ 50sec
5. Jean-François Bernard @ 1min 11sec
6. Roberto Visentini @ 1min 12sec
7. Charly Mottet s.t.
8. Gilbert Duclos-Lassalle @ 1min 35sec
9. Frederic Brun @ 1min 38sec
10. Rolf Golz @ 1min 45sec

Stage 8: Sunday, July 10, Reims - Nancy, 219 km

1. Rolf Golz: 5hr 24min 18sec
2. Etienne De Wilde s.t.
3. Gianni Bigno s.t.
4. Sean Kelly s.t.
5. Raul Alcala s.t.
6. Ronan Pensec s.t.
7. Luis Herrera s.t.
8. Pedro Delgado s.t.
9. Charly Mottet s.t.
10. Eric Boyer s.t.

GC after Stage 8:

1. Steve Bauer: 26hr 42min 5sec
2. Jelle Nijdam @ 10sec
3. Eric Breukink @ 43sec
4. Charly Mottet @ 1min 1sec
5. Jean-François Bernard @ 1min 2sec
6. Roberto Visentini @ 1min 3sec
7. Rolf Golz @ 1min 36sec
8. Sean Kelly @ 1min 44sec
9. Gilbert Duclos-Lassalle @ 1min 49sec
10. Frederic Brun @ 1min 52sec

Stage 9: Monday, July 11, Nancy - Strasbourg, 160.5 km

Major ascents: Donon, Struthof

1. Jerome Simon: 3hr 47min 31sec
2. Bruno Leali @ 7sec
3. Frederic Vichot @ 9sec
4. Federico Echave @ 14sec
5. Eric Caritoux s.t.
6. Guido Winterberg s.t.
7. Peter Winnen s.t.
8. Sean Yates s.t.
9. Dominique Garde @ 18sec
10. Sean Kelly @ 1min 56sec

GC after Stage 9:

1. Steve Bauer: 30hr 31min 32sec
2. Jerome Simon @ 14sec
3. Erik Breukink @ 43sec
4. Sean Yates @ 59sec
5. Charly Mottet @ 1min 1sec
6. Jean-François Bernard @ 1min 2sec
7. Roberto Visentini @ 1min 3sec
8. Frederic Vichot @ 1min 29sec
9. Sean Kelly @ 1min 44sec
10. Gilbert Duclos-Lassalle @ 1min 49sec

Stage 10: Tuesday, July 12, Belfort - Besançon, 149.5 km

Major Ascent: Ballon de Servance

1. Jean-Paul Van Poppel: 3hr 28min 31sec
2. Guido Bontempi s.t.
3. Eddy Planckaert s.t.
4. Manuel-Jorge Dominguez s.t.
5. Malcom Elliott s.t.
6. Davis Phinney s.t.
7. Sean Kelly s.t.
8. Steven Rooks s.t.
9. Stefano Zanatta s.t.
10. Adri Van Der Poel s.t.

GC after Stage 10:

1. Steve Bauer: 34hr 3sec
2. Jerome Simon @ 14sec
3. Erik Breukink @ 43sec
4. Sean Yates @ 59sec
5. Charly Mottet @ 1min 1sec
6. Jean-François Bernard @ 1min 2sec
7. Roberto Visentini @ 1min 3sec
8. Frederic Vichot @ 1min 29sec
9. Sean Kelly @ 1min 44sec
10. Gilbert Duclos-Lassalle @ 1min 49sec

Stage 11: Wednesday, July 13, Besançon - Morzine, 232 km

Major Ascents: Pas de Morgins, Corbier

1. Fabio Parra: 6hr 4min 54sec
2. Thierry Claveyrolat @ 20sec
3. Steven Rooks s.t.
4. Jerome Simon s.t.
5. Gerhard Zadrobilek @ 23sec
6. Raul Alcala s.t.
7. Peter Winnen s.t.
8. Alvaro Pino s.t.
9. Claude Criquielion s.t.
10. Charly Mottet s.t.

GC after Stage 11:

1. Steve Bauer: 40hr 5min 20sec
2. Jerome Simon @ 11sec
3. Erik Breukink @ 43sec
4. Charly Mottet @ 1min 1sec
5. Roberto Visentini @ 1min 3sec
6. Pedro Delgado @ 1min 52sec
7. Claude Criquielion @ 2min 3sec
8. Janus Kuum @ 2min 43sec
9. Raul Alcala @ 2min 59sec
10. Peter Winnen @ 3min 4sec

Stage 12: Thursday, July 14, Morzine - L'Alpe d'Huez, 227 km

Major Ascents: Pont d'Arbon, Madaleine, Glandon, L'Alpe d'Huez

1. Steven Rooks: 6hr 55min 44sec
2. Gert-Jan Theunisse @ 17sec
3. Pedro Delgado s.t.
4. Fabio Parra @ 23sec
5. Luis Herrera @ 1min 6sec
6. Thierry Claveyrolat @ 2min 31sec
7. Steve Bauer @ 2min 34sec
8. Eric Boyer @ 3min 8sec
9. Peter Winnen s.t.
10. Andy Hampsten @ 4min 21sec

GC after Stage 12:

1. Pedro Delgado: 47hr 3min 13sec
2. Steve Bauer @ 25sec
3. Fabio Parra @ 1min 20sec
4. Steven Rooks @ 1min 38sec
5. Luis Herrera @ 2min 25sec
6. Gert-Jan Theunisse @ 3min 55sec
7. Peter Winnen @ 4min 3sec
8. Eric Boyer @ 4min 14sec
9. Ronan Pensec @ 6min 1sec
10. Andy Hampsten @ 6min 26sec
11. Raul Alcala @ 6min 41sec
12. Charly Mottet @ 6min 55sec

Stage 13: Friday, July 15, Grenoble - Villard de Lans 38 km Individual Time Trial

Major Ascent: Côte d'Engins

1. Pedro Delgado: 1hr 2min 24sec
2. Jean-François Bernard @ 44sec
3. Steven Rooks @ 1min 9sec
4. Erik Breukink @ 2min 8sec
5. Alvaro Pino @ 2min 32sec
6. Steven Bauer @ 2min 37sec
7. Jerome Simon @ 2min 46sec
8. Michael Wilson @ 2min 50sec
9. Ronan Pensec @ 2min 54sec
10. Jorgen Pedersen @ 2min 55sec

GC after Stage 13:

1. Pedro Delgado: 48hr 5min 37sec
2. Steven Rooks @ 2min 47sec
3. Steve Bauer @ 3min 2sec
4. Fabio Parra @ 4min 43sec
5. Luis Herrera @ 6min 21sec
6. Gert-Jan Theunisse @ 7min
7. Eric Boyer @ 8min 5sec
8. Ronan Pensec @ 8min 55sec
9. Peter Winnen @ 9min 46sec
10. Andy Hampsten @ 10min 7sec

Stage 14: Sunday, July 17, Blagnac - Guzet Neige, 163 km

Major Ascents: Agnes, Latraoe, Guzet Neige

1. Massimo Ghirotto: 4hr 30min 34sec
2. Robert Millar @ 2sec
3. Philippe Bouvatier @ 13sec
4. Ennio Vanotti @ 34sec
5. Martial Gayant @ 58sec
6. Peter Stevenhaagen @ 1min 46sec
7. Marc Sergeant @ 1min 49sec
8. Frederic Vichot @ 2min 20sec
10. Dominique Arnaud @ 3min 34sec

GC after stage 14:

1. Pedro Delgado: 52hr 44min 54sec
2. Steven Rooks @ 3min 28sec
3. Steve Bauer @ 3min 54sec
4. Fabio Parra @ 5min 12sec
5. Luis Herrera @ 7min 2sec
6. Gert-Jan Theunisse @ 7min 25sec
7. Eric Boyer @ 8min 34sec
8. Ronan Pensec @ 9min 59sec
9. Peter Winnen @ 10min 27sec
10. Andy Hampsten @ 11min 2sec

Stage 15: Monday, July 18, St. Girons - Luz Ardiden, 187.5 km

Major Ascents: Portet d'Aspet, Mente, Peyresourde, Aspin, Tourmalet, Luz Ardiden

1. Laudelino Cubino: 6hr 20min 44sec
2. Gilbert Duclos-Lassalle @ 5min 59sec
3. Pedro Delgado @ 6min 2sec
4. Gert-Jan Theunisse @ 6min 31sec
5. Steven Rooks @ 6min 40sec
6. Eric Boyer s.t.
7. Ronan Pensec s.t.
8. Alvaro Pino s.t.
9. Fabio Parra s.t.
10. Denis Roux @ 7min 3sec

GC after Stage 15:

1. Pedro Delgado: 59hr 11hr 40sec
2. Steven Rooks @ 4min 6sec
3. Fabio Parra @ 5min 50sec
4. Steve Bauer @ 7min 25sec
5. Gert-Jan Theunisse @ 7min 54sec
6. Luis Herrera @ 8min 8sec
7. Eric Boyer @ 9min 12sec
8. Ronan Pensec @ 10min 37sec
9. Alvaro Pino @ 12min 56sec
10. Peter Winnen @ 13min 58sec

Stage 16: Tuesday, July 19, Luz Ardiden - Pau, 38 km.

1. Adri Van Der Poel: 46min 36sec
2. Etienne De Wilde s.t.
3. Davis Phinney s.t.
4. Guido Bontempi st.
5. Malcom Elliott s.t.
6. Eddy Planckaert s.t.
7. Soren Lilholt s.t.
8. Gert-Jan Theunisse s.t.
9. Andreas Kappes s.t.
10. Stefano Zanatta s.t.

GC after Stage 16:

1. Pedro Delgado: 59hr 58min 16sec
2. Steven Rooks @ 4min 6sec
3. Fabio Parra @ 6min
4. Steve Bauer @ 7min 25sec
5. Gert-Jan Theunisse @ 7min 54sec
6. Luis Herrera @ 8min 18sec
7. Eric Boyer @ 9min 22sec
8. Ronan Pensec @ 10min 37sec
9. Alvaro Pino @ 13min 6sec
10. Peter Winnen @ 14min 8sec

Stage 17: Tuesday, July 19, Pau - Bordeaux, 210 km

1. Jean-Paul Van Poppel: 4hr 58min 3sec
2. Mathieu Hermans s.t.
3. Eddy Planckaert s.t.
4. Adri Van Der Poel s.t.
5. Frank Hoste s.t.
6. Malcom Elliott s.t.
7. Davis Phinney s.t.
8. Stefano Zanatta s.t.
9. Manuel-Jorge Dominguez s.t.
10. Jean-Pierre Heynderickx s.t.

GC after Stage 17:

1. Pedro Delgado: 64hr 56min 19sec
2. Steven Rooks @ 4min 6sec
3. Fabio Parra @ 6min
4. Steve Bauer @ 7min 25sec
5. Gert-Jan Theunisse @ 7min 54sec
6. Luis Herrera @ 8min 18sec
7. Eric Boyer @ 9min 22sec
8. Ronan Pensec @ 10min 37sec
9. Alvaro Pino @ 13min 6sec
10. Peter Winnen @ 14min 8sec

Stage 18: Wednesday, July 20, Ruelle sur Touvre - Limoges, 93.5 km

1. Gianni Bugno: 2hr 12min 45sec
2. Jan Nevens @ 1sec
3. Martial Gayant @ 44sec
4. Mathieu Hermans @ 46sec
5. Davis Phinney s.t.
6. Gert-Jan Theunisse s.t.
7. Christophe Lavainne s.t.
8. Inaki Gaston s.t.
9. Eddy Planckaert s.t.
10. Marc Sergeant s.t.

GC after stage 18:

1. Pedro Delgado: 67hr 9min 50sec
2. Steven Rooks @ 4min 6sec
3. Fabio Parra @ 6min
4. Steve Bauer @ 7min 25sec
5. Gert-Jan Theunisse @ 8min 4sec
6. Luis Herrera @ 8min 18sec
7. Eric Boyer @ 9min 22sec
8. Ronan Pensec @ 10min 37sec
9. Alvaro Pino @ 13min 6sec
10. Peter Winnen @ 14min 8sec

Stage 19: Thursday, July 21, Limoges - Puy de Dôme, 188 km

Major Ascent: Puy de Dôme

1. Johnny Weltz: 5hr 14min 34sec
2. Rolf Goltz @ 43sec
3. Pedro Delgado @ 5min 25sec
4. Gert-Jan Theunisse @ 5min 58sec
5. Steven Rooks @ 6min 17sec
6. Marino Lejaretta @ 6min 24sec
7. Raul Alcala @ 6min 30sec
8. Eric Caritoux @ 6min 32sec
9. Laudelino Cubino @ 6min 37sec
10. Peter Winnen s.t.

GC after Stage 19:

1. Pedro Delgado: 72hr 29min 49sec
2. Steven Rooks @ 4min 58sec
3. Fabio Parra @ 7min 18sec
4. Steve Bauer @ 9min 48sec
5. Eric Boyer @ 10min 42sec
6. Luis Herrera @ 10min 53sec
7. Ronan Pensec @ 12min 3sec
8. Alvaro Pino @ 15min 17sec
9. Peter Winnen @ 15min 20sec
10. Denis Roux @ 17min 36sec

Stage 20: Friday, July 22, Clermont Ferrand - Chalon sur Saône, 223.5 km

1. Thierry Marie: 6hr 3min 45sec
2. Jean-Paul Van Poppel @ 2sec
3. Jean-Pierre Heynderickx s.t.
4. Eddy Planckaert s.t.
5. Adri Van Der Poel s.t.
6. Malcom Elliot s.t.
7. Stefano Zanatta s.t.
8. Davis Phinney s.t.
9. Guido Bontempi s.t.
10. Frederic Vichot s.t.

GC after Stage 20:

1. Pedro Delgado: 78hr 33min 36sec
2. Steven Rooks @ 4min 58sec
3. Fabio Parra @ 7min 18sec
4. Steve Bauer @ 9min 48sec
5. Eric Boyer @ 10min 42sec
6. Luis Herrera @ 10min 53sec
7. Ronan Pensec @ 12min 3sec
8. Alvaro Pino @ 15min 17sec
9. Peter Winnen @ 15min 20sec
10. Denis Roux @ 17min 36sec

Stage 21: Saturday, July 23, Santenay 48 km Individual Time Trial

1. Juan Martinez Oliver: 1hr 2min 37sec
2. Tony Rominger @ 4sec
3. Milan Jurco @ 5min
4. Pedro Delgado @ 11sec
5. Janus Kuum @ 58sec
6. Roberto Visentini @ 1min 5sec
7. Michael Wilson @ 1min 27sec
8. Sean Yates @ 1min 29sec
9. Erik Breukink @ 1min 36sec
10. Jesus Blanco Villar @ 1min 44sec

GC after Stage 21:

1. Pedro Delgado: 79hr 36min 24sec
2. Steven Rooks @ 7min 13sec
3. Fabio Parra @ 9min 58sec
4. Steve Bauer: 12min 15sec
5. Eric Boyer @ 14min 4sec
6. Luis Herrera @ 14min 36sec
7. Ronan Pensec @ 16min 52sec
8. Alvaro Pino @ 18min 36sec
9. Peter Winnen @ 19min 12sec
10. Denis Roux @ 20min 8sec

22nd and Final Stage: Sunday, July 24, Nemours - Paris (Champs Elysées), 172.5 km

1. Jean-Paul Van Poppel: 4hr 51min 29sec
2. Guido Bontempi s.t.
3. Mathieu Hermans s.t.
4. Malcom Elliott s.t.
5. Davis Phinney s.t.
6. Stefano Zanatta s.t.
7. Philippe Casado s.t.
8. Eddy Planckaerts.t.
9. Manuel-Jorge Dominguez s.t.
10. Dirk Demol s.t.

Complete Final 1988 Tour de France General Classification


The Story of the 1988 Tour de France:

This excerpt is from "The Story of the Tour de France", Volume 2. If you enjoy it we hope you will consider purchasing the book, either print or electronic. The Amazon link here will make either purchase easy.

Jean-François Naquet-Radiguet was replaced by his brother-in-law Xavier Louy as the Tour Director. Naquet-Radiguet was thought to be a bit too independent and made too many important decisions on his own that seemed to reflect poor judgment, including a planned Montreal, Canada start for the 1992 Tour.

This Tour smells. As exciting and competitive as the 1987 Tour was, the developments in the 1988 Tour will always leave a lingering bad aftertaste. It was also a warning of big problems to come.

Roche had 2 knee operations between his World Championship win and the start of the new season. He was quite unable to race the Tour. I remember seeing him on TV in 1988 undergoing therapy for his knee as he voiced his terrible frustration at not being able to race in his rainbow jersey.

LeMond was still recovering from his hunting accident.

As far as major Tour General Classification contenders, that left Pedro Delgado, second the previous year, as the man to beat. He lost the 1987 Tour by only 40 seconds. At no time did Roche, the winner, significantly outclass him.

Andy Hampsten and the American 7-Eleven team were entered. But Hampsten had just won the Giro a few weeks before and the team had buried itself to keep him in the lead when he took the Pink Jersey after a remarkable ascent—and a frightening descent—over a freezing Gavia Pass. Would they recover enough to vie for the Tour?

Luis Herrera won the Dauphiné in early June by bounding up the Col de Porte on the final stage, taking the lead from Acacio Da Silva. Charly Mottet had led in the early stages but had tired. Herrera showed superb form, but winning the Dauphiné is tough, draining work and often leaves its winner flat for the Tour. It would turn out to be true for Herrera in the 1988 Tour.

The 1988 Tour was the shortest since Henri Desgrange recast the race in 1906. At only 3,286 kilometers, it was even shorter than almost all of the Tours of the past decade. With 22 stages, the average stage length was only 149 kilometers. This held out the promise of a super-fast race.

The Tour was scheduled to open with a 6-kilometer Prologue. To comply with UCI rules, it was shortened to a "Prelude" that was run according to some rather odd rules. The teams rode a team time trial and let a single rider go with a flying start to ride the final kilometer, the only part that counted toward the General Classification. Guido Bontempi won with a time of 1 minute, 14 seconds. Bontempi's hold on the Yellow Jersey was almost as short as his Prelude. Canadian Steve Bauer managed to beat the pack home on the first stage by 8 seconds. It was enough to put him in Yellow.

Then it was Bauer's turn to give up the lead the next day. The heir and sponsors of the old TI-Raleigh squad, Panasonic, narrowly beat Bauer's Weinmann team, earning the Yellow Jersey for Teun van Vliet. None of this mattered much to the overall lead. Even the stage 6, 52-kilometer individual time trial didn't really smoke out the leaders. What the time trial did do was eliminate several riders from probable contention. Fignon and Kelly, each losing about 2 minutes, displayed lackluster form. Sprinter Jelle Nijdam held the lead.

In stage 8, the ever-attentive Steve Bauer got into a 16-man break initiated by Herrera that beat the pack by 23 seconds, giving Bauer the Yellow Jersey. The Tour remained a simmering cauldron of hot competitors. The race was turning out to be a fast one, setting a new record so far for average speed.

It was in stage 11, from Besançon to Morzine that the Tour boiled over. Stage 11 had 2 highly rated climbs, the first category Pas de Morgins and the category 2 Le Corbier. On the Morgins, French hopes Laurent Fignon and Jean-François Bernard lost contact with the leaders after Urs Zimmermann opened the day's hostilities. Steve Bauer was able to maintain contact with the front group and stayed with them for the rest of the stage, preserving his lead. The real contenders finished together with the exception of Colombia's Fabio Parra who soloed in 20 seconds ahead of the others. Fignon's Tour hopes were dashed when he lost 19 minutes.

Stage 12 was 227 kilometers, going from Morzine to L'Alpe d'Huez, crossing along the way, the Pont d'Arbon, the Madeleine, and the Glandon before finishing at the top of L'Alpe d'Huez. Bauer had kept his Yellow Jersey after the hilly stage 11. Stage 12 would be a tougher test for the Canadian. Fignon abandoned the Tour that morning before even starting the stage.

Delgado signaled his determination to shake things up when he attacked 2 kilometers from the summit of the Glandon, and only Steven Rooks could stay with him. On the descent they were caught by Fabio Parra and Gert-Jan Theunisse but the chasing pack couldn't close the gap.

Stage 12: Fabio Para leads Delgado and Theunisse.

Things exploded on the final run up the 21 hairpin turns of the Alpe. Fabio Parra repeatedly tried to get away, but he couldn't get through the crowds that blocked the leading motorcycles. Dutchman Steven Rooks managed to escape, closely followed by Delgado and Rooks' good friend Theunisse. Parra was 6 seconds behind Delgado. The rest of the field, including all of the erstwhile contenders, were scattered down the mountain. Luis Herrera was only 1 minute, 6 seconds behind, but Hampsten was tenth, 4 minutes, 21 seconds back. Pedro Delgado had established himself as the clear leader of the Tour as he donned the Yellow Jersey. Theunisse, in one of his many run-ins with doping controls during his career, was found positive. He had 10 minutes added to his time. Bauer finished 2 minutes, 34 seconds behind Rooks and had to cede his Yellow Jersey to Delgado.

The General Classification now stood thus:

1. Pedro Delgado
2. Steve Bauer @ 25 seconds
3. Fabio Parra @ 1 minute 20 seconds
4. Steven Rooks @ 1 minute 38 seconds
5. Luis Herrera @ 2 minutes 25 seconds

The next day (stage 13), Delgado nailed the box shut with his victory in the 38-kilometer uphill individual time trial. Bernard was second at 44 seconds and Rooks was third at 1 minute, 9 seconds. Steve Bauer lost his second place in the overall to Steven Rooks, who was now 2 minutes, 47 seconds behind the Spaniard.

Delgado wins the stage 13 time trial.

Now came a rest day that was also a transfer day to the Pyrenees.

Delgado rode carefully, yet masterfully in the Pyrenees. Stage 14, with several tough climbs at the end, wasn't contested by the men seeking Yellow. It did show that even the Tour de France could have organizational snafus. A kilometer from the end the follow cars were supposed to go straight and the riders were to bear left. In the confusion, the day's likely winner, Philippe Bouvatier, went with the cars. The stage winner, Massimo Ghirotto, recognizing Bouvatier's likely victory, offered Bouvatier the stage prize, a new Peugeot car. The Tour organization came up with a second car so that Ghirotto could keep his prize. In those days, a domestique's income was very poor and this was a tremendous act of generosity on Ghirotto's part.

Stage 15 was the 1988 Tour's Queen Stage, with some of the great cols of the Tour: Portet d'Aspet, the Col de Menté, the Peyresourde, the Aspin, the Tourmalet and Luz-Ardiden. Delgado had let Laudelino Cubino and Gilbert Duclos-Lassalle, non-contenders, get away. In the final rush to the finish Delgado bolted, leaving such vaunted climbers as Parra, Theunisse and Rooks to do what they could to limit the damage. Generously, he eased before the line to let Duclos-Lassalle take second place in the stage, Cubino having finished 6 minutes before. With the Pyrenees finished, Delgado had a 4 minute, 6 second lead on second place Rooks. With a stage up to Puy de Dôme, where he should do well, and a 46-kilometer individual time trial looming as the only obstacles, he should have been able to feel that the Tour was his.

The standings after the Pyrenees:

1. Pedro Delgado
2. Steven Rooks @ 4 minutes 6 seconds
3. Fabio Parra @ 5 minutes 50 seconds
4. Steve Bauer @ 7 minutes 25 seconds
5. Gert-Jan Theunisse @ 7 minutes 54 seconds

After the finish of stage 15 to Bordeaux a rumor started that ended up on television that evening: Delgado had tested positive for a banned drug. The journalists knew about the positive before Delgado did. The next day Tour officials confirmed that Delgado had tested positive for Probenecid. We'll stop here for just a second. Probenecid turns up every so often in dope tests. It is unusual that a healthy person would ever need Probenecid since it is rarely dispensed even to sick people. It acts as a diuretic and helps some people with gout. It can also increase the potency of antibiotics. Victims of drug-resistant gonorrhea are given Probenecid to increase the efficacy of their regimen of antibiotics. It is also called for in some AIDS cases. But Probenecid was found to have another effect. It drastically slows the urinary excretion of the metabolites of steroids. When an athlete pees into a bottle for a drug test, the testing scientist is often not looking for the drug itself. He is looking for the by-products that the body produces as it metabolizes the drug. This is how steroids are detected, by looking for the chemicals the body produces in eliminating the drug.

Probenecid keeps these telltale chemicals from being present in urine, thus circumventing the drug test; the Probenecid itself, however, is present. And Delgado had it in the sample that he gave for the stage 13 time trial.

Here's where it gets interesting. Probenecid was on the Olympic Committee's list of banned drugs. The UCI (the governing body ruling cycling) was going to ban the drug after the Tour. It was not on the list of banned drugs during the 1988 Tour. Technically, Delgado had committed no offense in using Probenecid as it was not yet a banned drug. Two days after the positive test, the second sample (there is always an "A" and "B" sample tested independently for the protection of the racer) was tested and confirmed the positive for the drug. The Spanish government sent sports ministers and lawyers to France to argue Delgado's case. They were not going to surrender a third Spanish Tour winner (after Bahamontes and Ocaña) without a fight. Because there was no actual offense Delgado could continue the Tour without penalty. The day of the announcement that Delgado was clear was also the day Theunisse received his 10-minute penalty for his doping positive. Ironically, it was steroids that showed up in Theunisse's test sample, the same class of chemicals that Delgado was thought to be hiding with Probenecid.

To this day, Delgado maintains his innocence and acts as if his continuing the Tour under the drug cloud was an act of heroism. He said he took the Probenecid to take care of problems with his legs. He later said that he was given a drink by a spectator on the route. Merckx thought the conflicting stories reflected poorly on the man, calling the defense Delgado offered, "rubbish". If he was innocent, then he competed under very tough emotional conditions. He was tested over and over again during the Tour and came up positive only once. But barring evidence to the contrary, I tend to believe that mass spectrographs are more reliable than racers caught with a positive sample. Delgado is a genuinely nice man. The racers and the fans liked him. Because of this geniality, Delgado was able to elicit a great deal of sympathy from the fans. The riders staged a 10-minute strike the next day in sympathy for Delgado and against the inept handling of his case. It should also be noted that Delgado had been tested at least 10 times during the 1988 Tour and only this one time had he turned up positive for Probenecid.

On the stage 19 ascent up Puy de Dôme Johnny Weltz and Rolf Golz had a substantial lead, 15 minutes with 50 kilometers to go. But then things stirred in the peloton. On the climb Delgado demonstrated his complete mastery by easily dropping all the others and finishing third, 5½ minutes behind Weltz. Delgado was now almost 5 minutes ahead of second-place Rooks.

A clearly elated Thierry Marie wins stage 20 in Chalon sur Saône

Delgado wanted to win the 46-kilometer individual time trial to make a clean win of it all. Held on rolling terrain near Dijon, Delgado was able to come close to winning the stage. He was ahead at every checkpoint but the finish line. The wind had become strong during the day and finally it was too much for Delgado to overcome. His fourth place at 11 seconds to the winner Juan Martinez-Oliver was still the best time of any of the top men. Rooks finished twentieth, 2 minutes, 26 seconds behind.

Hampsten and his team were indeed shot after the Giro. The Giro winner never was able to display his normal brilliance in the high mountains. The 7-Eleven team was dogged by misfortune that started even before the race had started. Bob Roll crashed before the "Prelude" and had to be replaced at the last minute. During the second stage team time trial Dag-Otto Lauritzen crashed. Roy Knickman failed to make the time cutoff on the eighteenth stage to Limoges and that day, Jeff Pierce, who had been struggling, was also eliminated.

Final 1988 Tour de France General Classification:

1. Pedro Delgado (Reynolds): 84 hours 27minutes 53 seconds
2. Steven Rooks (PDM) @ 7 minutes 13 seconds
3. Fabio Parra (Kelme) @ 9 minutes 58 seconds
4. Steve Bauer (Weinmann-La Suisse) @ 12 minutes 15 seconds
5. Eric Boyer (Systeme U) @ 14 minutes 4 seconds
15. Andrew Hampsten (7-Eleven) @ 26 minutes

Climbers' Competition:

1. Steven Rooks: 326 points
2. Gert-Jan Theunisse: 248 points
3. Pedro Delgado: 223 points

Points Competition:

1. Eddy Planckaert: 278 points
2. Davis Phinney: 193 points
3. Sean Kelly: 183 points

The 1988 Tour did live up to its expectation as a fast race. The average speed was 38.909 kilometers per hour, the fastest Tour so far. And it was a strange Tour for Belgium. For the first time since 1910, not 1 rider from the bike-mad country won a stage.

Epilogue to the 1988 Tour. In 2000 Steven Rooks admitted to taking amphetamines and testosterone during his racing career. He just didn't get caught.


Video of Stage 12 to l'Alpe d'Huez